Abstract. This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults, and the adverse events associated with its use in clinical trials.
Tramadol may be administered at any dose and by any route, and compared to placebo or any active comparator. Tramadol with or without paracetamol for cancer pain.
Serious adverse events, defined as leading to withdrawal from treatment, including death.
Studies have to be fully published or available as extended abstracts (e.g. We will exclude non-randomised studies, studies of experimental pain, case reports and clinical observations. from clinical trial websites); we will exclude short (usually conference) abstracts as these are often unreliable ( PaPaS 2012 ).
We will search the following databases without language or date restrictions.
We will undertake an assessment of publication bias if there are sufficient data for meta-analysis, using a method designed to detect the amount of unpublished data with a null effect required to make any result clinically irrelevant (usually taken to mean an NNT of 10 or higher) ( Moore 2008 ).
Use of tramadol with concurrent serotonergic therapy poses a risk of serotonin syndrome ( Beakley 2015 ).
This study presents a high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometric (LC–ESI–MS) method for the simultaneous determination of tramadol and acetaminophen in human plasma using phenacetinum as the internal standard. After alkalization with saturated sodium bicarbonate, both.
The selectivity of the assay was checked by comparing the chromatograms of six different batches of blank human plasma with the corresponding spiked plasma. Each blank plasma sample was tested using the proposed extraction procedure and LC–ESI–MS conditions to ensure no interference of analytes and internal standards from plasma.
Methanol was of HPLC grade (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). (Shanxi, China). All other reagents were of analytical grade and purchased from Nanjing Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.
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Food, especially foods high in pectin (including jellies), carbohydrates, and many types of cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and others) can interfere with acetaminophen absorption.
The combination of analgesic drugs with different pharmacological properties may show better efficacy with less side effects. Aim of this study was to examine the analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties of the weak opioid tramadol and the non-opioid acetaminophen, alone as well as in combination, in an experimental.
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Keywords Interaction of acetaminophen and tramadol, Experimental pain, Hyperalgesia, Pharmacodynamic modeling, Isobologram.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for pain caused by osteoarthritis, but their usefulness is limited by side effects. Tramadol combined with acetaminophen is recommended, according to the new American Pain Society guidelines, for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain when.
The authors conclude that treating osteoarthritis flares with tramadol/acetaminophen provides significant pain relief over placebo in patients taking a stable dosage of an NSAID.
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Patients assessed pain before the first dose and at regular intervals up to four hours after the dose. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and pain relief, scored according to a four-point assessment.